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  • The various barriers posed by fungi constitute one of the key exacerbating factors in phyto-pathogenic treatment. At the very entry-base antifungals are confronted by a cell wall that is generally regarded as impenetrable with nano-sized gaps between the protective matrixes and complicated by its hydrophobic nature. This wall is followed by a cell membrane that by its very nature performs a highly selective barrier function. It is believed that any successful anti-fungal preparation must first overcome these 2 barriers.
  • Firstly, it is known that the wall’s fibrous matrix does have tiny gaps (± 30 nm), and molecules smaller than this, should go through. Secondly, we know that fungi make abundant use of lipids for its survival, and it is highly questionable whether this wall will starve its host of an essential and much needed supply of lipids. Thirdly, we know that the cell membranes have receptors. It makes no sense for it to have receptors when the wall prevents ligands from reaching the membrane. Abe and Hikari reported the crucial role and function of ergosterol in the cell membrane. Casadevall confirmed the presence of a lipid pathway through the cell wall. They conclude with the following remarks: “ The finding of extracellular vesicles that presumably function as delivery vehicles for transporting and concentrating large molecular weight cargo across the cell wall indicates towards new areas of investigation”.
  • A further consideration is toxicity: Much of the tree treatment will be in urban areas where there is every danger of child and animal exposure and other environmental damage. It was felt that it would be advantageous to focus in our selection of ingredients to natural or at least non-toxic substances wherever possible. The PSHB Fungicidal formula contains no toxic substances, and all ingredients are from natural sources.
  • This confirms the viability of the ANODS developed by Pan African Farms to be used as vehicles to deliver vital cargo deeper into the cell core, where much damage can be done, especially if we consider that the vast majority of these vesicles are around 10 nanometers in diameter. This is done without invoking the retaliatory and defensive reaction from the outer layers.


  • Due to the ANODS base of the formula it offers rapid penetration through the thick and generally assumed to be impenetrable cell wall and also rapid acceptance thereof by the cell membrane, followed by transference beyond this barrier.
  • The very lipidic nature of the formula overcomes the hydrophobic barrier of the outer surface of the target fungus.
  • Due to the polygenic and multi-cite nature of the formula, the risk of drug resistance is low.
  • This is compounded by the obscuring role played by the ANODS, were the barrier functions are not exposed to the active ingredients, and therefore makes complete elimination of drug resistance possible
  • Because all ingredients are natural plant derivatives, it will qualify as “organic” product
  • None of the ingredients are toxic and the products are therefore non-toxic and safe.
  • It therefore will also be environmentally safe and will not disrupt the ecology
  • There will be minimal damage to the “good” and vital microbes in the soil
  • The varied selection of active ingredients makes this formula a “broad spectrum” antifungal
  • The product also serves as antifungal, fungicidal as well as fungi static.
  • The formula is varied and can be adapted to serve as inoculant for preventative purposes as well as foliar application.
  • There is no substance that may cause cytotoxicity and consequently foliar damage will be eliminated


Pan African Farms

31A Unie Street


RSA 9585


Tel. +27 56 817 6489